Article I. NAME
The name of this organization is the United Humankind Organization (UHO)
Article II. 1. OBJECTIVES
For an example of a National Chapter, click here .
The UHO is to be a humandevelopment, educational, and charitable organization. It is to be a mainly volunteer umbrella organization for unified planning, policies, initiatives, and guidance to make society more secure, just, and responsive, through well-orchestrated Citizens' Action Groups or Chapters of the organization. UHO members or national representatives are located all around the world, communicated mainly by internet, and the physical presence of all members in a meeting is not required.
Any individual is conceptually a member of the neighborhood Chapter (may be a member in other Chapters or committees too). In the neighborhood and other localized Chapters, personal contacts and meetings by physical presence shall be the primary means of communication. Getting together a few hours once in a while for fun as well as for doing something together beneficial for all is the main idea. This is the level where most of the real work will be done. Upper levels are more geared towards planning, policies, initiatives, and guidance.
The objectives of the United Humankind Organization (UHO) are:
To establish a system so that everybody can do something for the common benefit of all without a big sacrifice. To promote unity and effectiveness of efforts among all concerned with human problems and to reaffirm the right of each human being in enjoying the fruits of his/her hard work and savings without being deprived illegally on any matter, including human dignity.
To establish a system of communication among all. By successive e-mails (after consolidating information) from the contact person at one level to the contact person at the next level – neighborhood, next higher level, district/county, state /province, national, international - we can have responses from all. Website(s) (or successive e-mails for non-urgent or regional messages) may be used to communicate from upper levels to lower level contacts. The neighborhood level contact will be assisted by other contacts, each with the responsibility of contacting a number of households or individuals (for both communicating to and receiving responses from). Thus all persons living in societies will be connected. Contacts will be advised to look for urgent messages at the designated place every 6 to 8 hours (once a day for non-urgent things).
To unite private citizens with positive attitude under the umbrella of UHO. Under UHO, there will be scores of Sections. Each Section will deal with an aspect of humanity, e.g. poverty, justice, crime, functional education on vocations, earning and managing money, physical and mental health and hygiene, best methods of interactions in family and society, far-sight, fun. To provide information services of use in as many areas as possible. We will be able to locate all persons interested in a particular aspect of society, using our established communication channel. Money can be raised by a few highest-paying direct advertisements. Even the announcement of a big donation will work as the biggest advertisement (to all people on earth) possible. Whatever things are possible to be done by this network of organizations, will cost negligible amounts compared to that spent by UNO or governments. One of the joint activities of UNO and UHO may be that of giving proper education (and mind set) to all children on earth. This initiative may ultimately make education compulsory all over the world and provide one or two meals at schools to the poorest students.
By using all cheap means of communication or personal contacts, UHO will educate society on the most successful initiative for society or individuals; point out meaningless customs or conventions and inefficiencies and suggest changes; make known to all whatever useful idea or experience exists anywhere; promote the solidarity of far-sighted people and increase the spirit of volunteerism; encourage a culture of (1) hope and inspiration, (2) thinking and analyzing, (3) pride in goodness; discuss thousands of items in human lives in a way that runs counter to the widespread conviction that failure is inevitable and goodness is impossible to exist in daily life. Continuously praise and honor individuals for any act of goodness.
Specific actions of a Chapter will depend on the problems and priorities of the involved region, the wishes of the volunteers and donors, resources available for that Chapter, and the mode of interaction among adjacent levels. At least in the beginning, action without much support from all concerned will be avoided. More emphasis will be given to tackling root problems in communities. Then, broader issues, say, fighting against powerful evil forces, will be addressed by upper level Chapters or the UHO.
To take all steps possible to see that youngsters are properly raised to be responsible citizens. Volunteerism itself helps character building; it provides opportunities to be inspired by role models through direct contacts. To make attempts to influence potential delinquents towards becoming a hero in noble deeds rather than in crimes. A person honored in a gathering or allowed to give a speech will generally try to maintain a better image. Current systems deal with problems when evil (including helplessness and poverty) has matured and surfaced, without destroying the roots. As a result, the tree of evil never dies and spreads evil eternally. Also, when evil has stricken, the victims and those infected by evil are already doomed.
UHO or its Chapters may take initiatives to settle disputes between or among individuals or other parties but obviously the proposed settlement is not legally binding on any party.
Through cooperation with the governments, form an oversight committee of tax-payers in each branch of government to report its views about the spending of tax-money and functioning in that branch
II. 2. BACKGROUND AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES
Compared with the magnitude of efforts needed for survival, affluence, or ego competitions, the efforts needed to reduce the pains created through inefficiency and non-responsiveness in our societies because of short-sighted selfishness, and by fellow human beings through various crimes, ignorance, misuse of power, hostility, etc. are minimal, provided the good forces unite, plan, and work for it systematically. A few hours of voluntary work once in a while cooperatively with others for the common benefit is fun and energizing, and is a door to happiness for all.
The common short-sighted thinking of "me" without concern for the earth or society around me breeds (induces) short-sighted thinking in billions of people, ultimately making our lives much worse than we could enjoy. This is like the fleeing of big animals in a herd from a small cheetah to save own life, instead of standing together and attacking the cheetah with their horns. Einstein - "The world is a dangerous place. Not because of the people who are evil; but because of the people who don't do anything about it." I realized the truth of this by being able to change a locality. All evil on earth is our own creation because of leaving vulnerable ones on their own to work in devil’s workshops. My good gestures and self-sacrifices for great benefits of the totality of the human race will gradually breed similar attitudes in all others, leading to benefits ultimately outweighing my sacrifices. Almost all persons return my good or bad manners/gestures.
Emotions without realizing other's emotions, conflicts, adversity, insecurity, tension, etc. take away most of our happiness. Apparent human happiness achieved through violence is just waiting to be reversed in another cycle of time. Ultimate and very long-term human happiness can be achieved through non-violence, education, contemplation and realization, cooperation, openness, accommodation instead of suspicion, and persistence.
The Operating Principles of this organization are: non-violence; humanism and togetherness for common benefit instead of any "ism" that divides the human family; persistent pursuit for justice without identifying any party as enemy; caring, sharing, cooperation, friendly manners and tolerance; conflict or hostility resolution through involving the appropriate Chapter of UHO or even the central UHO, if so appropriate. These basic principles can never be eliminated. However, for other matters, legal technicalities that spoil the spirit of cooperation for making society better should quickly be removed.
Article III. MEMBERSHIP
There will be one National Representative to UHO (or member) per one million or fraction, if any, of a million of the population of a country, from among those who were either born in that country or are current citizens of that country (with an exception stated below). In the beginning, any individual swearing to work towards promoting the objectives of the organization, by voluntary work or by big donations, to obey the rules and regulations of the organization, and refrain from any words or actions detrimental to the health of the organization may apply to be a member. Also, in the beginning (until an end-date for that country is declared by the Upper-House of the organization defined latter), someone with a strong background in and connection with a particular country and visiting that country often may apply to be a member on behalf of that country.
Once a member is removed from membership because of inaction or because the member's continuation as a member is deemed detrimental to the health of the organization or because the member can serve better at a Chapter of the organization or by request of the respective National Chapter of the organization, by the policy-making body, called the Upper-House (defined in Article VI) of the organization by 60% majority, or the member abandons membership himself/herself, subsequent re-entry of that member has to be nominated by the respective National Chapter of the organization. The Upper-House shall have the authority to accept or reject re-entry by 60% majority. In the absence of such a majority decision, the National Chapter nomination prevails. By "nominated by a chapter," is, generally, meant to be nominated by the Upper-House of the Chapter by a 55% majority. If any controversy develops, it will be resolved at the Chapter level by the method of resolving controversial or unusual matters at the Chapter level.
The member has the right to be notified and heard once in three years before removal. In the three-year period starting from the first notice, if the same genuine deficiency continues, the member may be removed without any further notice; however, the notice and hearing process is not prohibited.
In the beginning, everything will be on an adhoc basis until the whole structure takes shape and relevant parts of the constitution can be implemented.
Complete or partial lack of representation from some countries, Chapters, Councils, etc. due to non-participation or genuinely unavoidable reasons shall not invalidate any "Body", "Committee," etc. However, any serious omissions, grievances, or controversy should be resolved by constitutional methods (say, revoting), as soon as reasonably possible. "We are legally right; so we shall not revote," should not be the attitude. The whole purpose of the organization is cooperation and goodwill. An appropriate window of time for a particular voting or revoting should be allowed and these details should preferably be included in the Bye-laws.
The Secretary and the Treasurer of any executive committee shall have voting rights only as the General Member of UHO (if actually so) and as a member of the Executive Committee and nowhere else within UHO (but can vote in other Chapters of affiliation).
Article IV. CHAPTERS AND COUNCIL OF CHAPTERS
Members representing a country will take initiatives to form the corresponding National Chapter with representatives from each Province or State, who in turn will form Provincial or State Chapters with representatives from each Division or District or County, etc. In this way Chapters will be formed up to the neighborhood level. These Chapters must have the same objectives as those of UHO and should have the Constitution, Upper-House, Council of Chapters, Council of Sections, committees, and Executive Bodies similar to those of UHO, and other things similar to those of UHO, unless becomes ridiculous or too inconvenient. It is extremely convenient if all the constitutions at a particular level (e.g. district) are exactly the same.
A Council of Chapters of the UHO will be formed with one representative from each National Chapter (elected by that Chapter) and the executive body of the council will be elected by the Upper-House (all such bodies are defined below). This council will provide oversight and guidance for National Chapter activities, including that of the formation of Chapters (if any, after the council is in existence) and achieving a uniform constitution for all national Chapters. This council shall channel information among the UHO, the Council of Sections, and the Chapters and shall promote cooperation among the Chapters. This council will, generally, function under a charter proposed by the council and approved by the Upper-House. However, the Upper-House will have the authority to change that charter anytime or interfere in any matter of the council with two-thirds votes.
In the absence of a two-thirds majority in the Upper-House, a simple majority in all three of Upper-House, Council of Chapters, and Council of Sections can interfere and make changes in any matter or Charter of the Council of Chapters, when the Upper-House proposes this step by simple majority.
Article V. SECTIONS AND COUNCIL OF SECTIONS
Members of UHO may form a Section in order to further the objectives of the organization in a matter of special importance. Responsibility for chartering, overseeing, and dissolving Sections rests with the Council of Sections. This council shall consist of as many representatives from each Section (elected by that Section) as seems appropriate for the number of Sections in existence (to be decided by the Upper-House). The executive body of the council will be elected by the Upper-House. However, the overall size of this council can never exceed that of the Council of Chapters. This council shall channel information among the UHO, Council of Chapters, and the Sections and shall promote cooperation among the Sections. Each Section will form a sub-network together with the corresponding Sections in all Chapters and coordinate its activities all over the world (under the supervision of the council). This council will, generally, function under a charter proposed by the council and approved by the Upper-House. However, the Upper-House will have the authority to change that charter anytime or interfere in any matter of the council with two-thirds votes.
In the absence of a two-thirds majority in the Upper-House, a simple majority in all three of Upper-House, Council of Chapters, and Council of Sections can interfere and make changes in any matter or Charter of the Council of Sections, when the Upper-House proposes this step by simple majority.
Article VI. UPPER-HOUSE (Congress or Parliament?)
The Upper-House is the policy-making body (conforming to laws of the land; inappropriate laws may and should be changed by initiatives from UHO) and the normal authority (notwithstanding the supreme authority of the general membership by 60% majority and the stated authority of the combined Upper-House and the two Councils) of the organization. The members from each country will elect for the Upper-House, from among them, a minimum of one and a maximum not to exceed 2% of the number of members allowed for that country.
This Upper-House may form various committees out of the members of the Upper-House or the general membership of UHO, to accomplish specific functions, including the Committee of Committees, Planning Committee (a separate Constitution and By-Laws Committee, only as deemed necessary), Finance Committee, Management Review Committee, Budget Committee, Directory Committee, Nomination Committee, Election Committee, Audit Committee, Publication Committee, Awards and Honors Committee, Programs Committee, Volunteer Recruitment Committee, other specific-Project Committees, and the Executive Body of the Upper-House (from the members of the Upper-House, to lead the duties of the Upper-House; this is different from the Executive Committee of UHO (Article VII. below).
The Upper-House shall also consider and approve the budget of the UHO, submitted by various committees, councils, Board of Directors, and other bodies of UHO, etc. and reviewed by the Budget Committee.
Adequate amount of time should be provided for deliberations before voting. Routine functions will be conducted by simple majority (in the Executive Committees, Board of Directors, Councils, or the Upper-House, as relevant). Unusual or controversial matters, including that of interfering in the functioning of the Board of Directors or any other component of UHO, shall be conducted preferably by two-thirds majority in the Upper-House or by a simple majority in the Upper-House and in all three together of Upper-House, Council of Chapters, and Council of Sections, when the Upper-House or any of the Councils proposes this step to the Election Committee, by simple majority within itself.
The constitution may not be changed by less than two-thirds majority in the Upper-House or in all three together of Upper-House, Council of Chapters, and Council of Sections, while the proposal may still be made by the Upper-House or by any of the Councils, by simple majority within itself. In critical situations, votes from the whole of the membership of UHO may be taken. That voting decision can be taken by the wish of a simple majority in all three together of the Upper-House, Council of Chapters and Council of Sections or by petition of 25% members. The general membership can change anything, including the constitution, or take any decision, which is supreme to anything else done by any other body, by 60% majority.
Simple or other majority is based on the actual number of members and not the number voting.
The preliminary adhoc constitution may be accepted by a 55% majority in the Upper-House (which may be incomplete in the beginning).
Article VII.1. THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF UHO
The Board of Directors (Executive Branch) of UHO shall consist of the President (Head of UHO), President-Elect, Past President (only one of these three in the first year and two in the second year of the organization), the Vice President, Vice President-Elect, and the Past Vice President (only one of these three in the first year and two in the second year of the organization), representatives (who are also in the Council of National Chapters) of the Council of National Chapters numbering about 5% of the number of National Chapters, one representative of each Section (who is also in the Council of Sections), the Secretary, and the Treasurer. This Board and the Executive Committe of U.H.O. shall function under a guideline approved by the Upper-House.
This Board of Directors is the first point of initiatives, leadership, authority, and contact. All complaints or proposals for any actions, changes, nominations, or voting should be sent (forwarded, if received by anybody else of the organization) to this Board for action or forwarding to other "bodies" or committees as relevant. The Board will explain in writing to whomever these originated from, how these were addressed. If that party is not satisfied, he/she/they may pursue the methods for handling unusual or controversial matters provided in Article VI. (e.g., consents from 25% general members of UHO, Upper-House, or any of the two Councils). However, the ultimate success will depend on votes. This Board is the central point for all communications and should be aware of all what goes on in the organization.
This Board shall interpret the constitution and policies for day to day activities of the UHO. However, at least once in three months, all activities should be reported to the Upper-House and clarifications should be sought from the Upper-House. This Board shall also assign functions to be performed (under a guideline prepared by the Board) to any individual, group of members, "body," or committee, if not already assigned by the Constitution. All policies, guidelines, or instructions formulated by the Board should be immediately submitted to the Upper-House. Generally, these need to be approved by the Upper-House, before they can be implemented. In emergency situations, work may proceed on an adhoc basis until the Upper-House could take decisions on these. Except for the representatives of the Councils, other members of the Board of Directors are positions elected by all members (?or, to make things simple - by all those who are in the Upper-House and the two councils?).
Article VII.2. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF UHO
The Executive Committee of the UHO shall consist of some members of the Board of Directors: the President, the President-Elect, the Vice- President, the Vice-President Elect, the Treasurer, and the Secretary. This committee and other "specific-action committees" formed by this executive committee, the Board of Directors, or the Upper-House are responsible for day to day functioning of the organization, in consultation with the Board of Directors, and must report to the Board of Directors all activities and difficulties at least once a month. The Board of Directors can interfere in the functioning of the Executive Committee or any other committee formed by the Board or the Executive Committee, by two-thirds majority. The Board can also utilize the alternative provided for the handling of unusual or controversial matters (Article VI.), for interference in any matter or in actions of any committee. All specific-action committees should be pre-approved or submitted immediately after formation for approval to the Upper-House.
Article VIII. TERMS OF OFFICE
The duration of term for the Upper-House, Board of Directors, and the Councils is, normally, three years, unless a member in these bodies is removed or removes himself/herself from such a body. Because of the option of abandoning the position, with the decision known adequately ahead of the yearly election (however, past President or past Vice-President positions cannot be elected) nobody should be afraid that three years may be a long term for him/her. For the first President and the first Vice President of UHO, the duration in the Board of Directors is two years because they do not have a year as President-Elect or Vice President-Elect.
Nobody in the Board of Directors or in any of the Executive bodies should have a term more than three consecutive years. All others except the general member, who is potentially permanent, may be re-elected in the same position for a maximum of one more consecutive term of three years. There is no limit on non-consecutive terms for any position. Any one-time decision also may be taken in the same way as the changing of the Constitution, without actually changing the Constitution.
For any position which is to be partially or fully paid, decided in the manner other unusual or controversial matters (Article VI.) to be decided, there may or may not be any such limit on terms. New positions, offices, or organs may be created as needed, in a similar manner.
Since communication and cooperation are among the main objectives of the organization, it is imperative that the functioning and decisions of the organization be made known to all stake holders and conducted/made with full sensitivity (best efforts to remove any dissatisfaction) to minority opinions, as soon as possible.
Article IX. DISSOLUTION
Upon the dissolution of the Organization, assets shall be donated for one or more exempt purposes within the meaning of Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, or corresponding section of any future Federal tax code.
Other details are to be in the By-Laws of the Organization, which may be accepted for the first time by 55% majority in the Upper-House, when one is available, and changed in the way unusual or controversial matters are to be handled (not exactly like changing the Constitution). Real work should not wait for the perfection of the Constitution or By-Laws.There may be temporary By-Laws for the initiation of the formation or the initial activities of the organization.
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